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Drug overdose mortality among people experiencing homelessness, 2003 – 2018

1/7/22--In this cohort study of people experiencing homelessness, drug overdose accounted for 1 in 4 deaths, with synthetic opioid and polysubstance involvement becoming predominant contributors to mortality in recent years. These findings emphasize the importance of increasing access to evidence-based opioid overdose prevention strategies and opioid use disorder treatment among people experiencing homelessness, while highlighting the need to address both intentional and unintentional polysubstance use in this population. Read

Association of racial disparity of cannabis possession arrests among adults and youths with statewide cannabis decriminalization and legalization

10/29/21--In this case-control study of 43 US states with and without cannabis policy changes, decriminalization and legalization were associated with large reductions in race-based arrests among adults; however, the timing of effects suggests differential policy effects. Among youth, only decriminalization was associated with reductions in arrests and arrest disparities; cannabis arrests for adults and youth increased over time in states that did not implement a cannabis policy change. Read

Prevalence of adolescent cannabis vaping: A systematic review and met-analysis of US and Canadian studies

10/25/21--The findings of this study suggest that the prevalence of cannabis vaping has increased among adolescents in the US and Canada and that more effective preventive and response measures are required. Read

In search of a better way to assess the risk of youth exposure to nicotine and tobacco products

9/27/21--The CDC examines middle school and high school students’ current (past 30 days) use of multiple tobacco products, including cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, hookahs, pipe tobacco, and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). In addition to assessing current use of each product individually, the CDC tracks past 30-day use of any tobacco product (ATP). Both e-cigarette and ATP use rose dramatically in 2018 and 2019, leading public health authorities to label youth vaping an epidemic. Both measures declined in 2020. Read

Safety and tolerability of transdermal cannabidiol gel in children with developmental and epileptic encephalopathies

9/3/21--In this nonrandomized controlled trial, CBD transdermal gel was well tolerated over 6.5 months of treatment, with 60% of patients experiencing a treatment-related adverse event, 96% of which were mild or moderate. A 43.5% reduction in seizure frequency was observed in focal impaired awareness seizures and tonic-clonic seizures. These results suggest that CBD transdermal gel is well tolerated in children with developmental and epileptic encephalopathies and may be associated with a reduction in epileptic seizures. Read

Association of 1 vaping session with cellular oxidative stress in otherwise healthy young people with no history of smoking or vaping

8/9/21--The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of a single session of ECIG vaping on COS in immune cells in young people who do not smoke or vape compared with young people with long-term TCIG or ECIG use. Read

Effects of graphic warning labels of cigarette packs on US smokers’ cognitions and a random clinical trial

8/4/21-- This randomized clinical trial found that graphic warning labels decreased positive perceptions of cigarettes associated with branded cigarette packs but without clearly increasing health concerns. They also increased quitting cognitions but did not affect either cigarette cessation or consumption levels. Read

Two models of legalization of psychedelic substances

8/2/21--Two of the most ambitious measures, in Oregon and California, take different paths to legalization. This Viewpoint reviews these initiatives and the concerns they raise by looking to the cautionary precedents involving the legalization and commercialization of other controlled substances. Read

Development over time of the population-attribution risk fraction for cannabis use disorder in schizophrenia in Denmark

7/21/21--In this Danish nationwide, register-based cohort study, the population-attributable risk fraction for cannabis use disorder in schizophrenia increased from approximately 2% in the period to 1995 to approximately 6% to 8% since 2010. Meaning These findings may indicate that cannabis use disorders are associated with an increase in the proportion of cases of schizophrenia. Read

Compliance with Cannabis Act regulations regarding online promotion among Canadian commercial cannabis-licensed firms

7/12/21--In this cross-sectional study of 261 Canadian cannabis-licensed firms, widespread violations were observed in online Canadian cannabis promotion. Among the 261 licensed firms, 86.3% with an online platform had at least 1 violation, which was significantly more likely to occur on social media compared with a website. A lack of age restrictions for youth, unsubstantiated claims, omission of risk information, and glamorization of cannabis products were found. Read

Alcohol COVID-19 fallout: Teens’ happy hour with parents

6/30/21--Although underage drinking has steadily declined over the past decade—according to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 33.5% of teens in 2019 said they drank during the past year compared with 44.7% in 2009—the COVID-19 pandemic may have steered teenage drinking into troublesome territory. Social isolation during lockdowns likely kept some teens from drinking with friends or at parties, but for others the concentrated family time at home included a new ritual: happy hour. Read

Alcohol-related diseases increased as some people drank more during COVID-19 pandemic

6/30/21--According to George Koob, PhD, director of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), more than a dozen studies have found that 20% to 40% of individuals surveyed reported consuming more alcohol than usual during the pandemic. Complicating the situation is that people with alcohol use disorder (AUD) might have an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19, because alcohol impairs lung immune responses. Read

Associations of Suicidality trends with cannabis use as a function of sex and depression status

6/22/21--Results of this study concludes that from 2008 to 2019, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt increased 40% to 60% over increases ascribed to cannabis use and MDE. However, future research is needed to examine this increase in suicidality and to determine whether it is due to cannabis use or overlapping risk factors. Read

Association of cannabis use during adolescence with neurodevelopment

6/16/21--In this cohort study, linear mixed-effects model analysis using 1598 magnetic resonance images from 799 participants revealed that cannabis use was associated with accelerated age-related cortical thinning from 14 to 19 years of age in predominantly prefrontal regions. The spatial pattern of cannabis-related cortical thinning was significantly associated with a positron emission tomography–assessed map of cannabinoid 1 receptor availability. Read

Temporal trends in suicidal ideation and attempts among US adolescents by sex and race/ethnicity, 1991-2019

6/14/21--In this cross-sectional study of 183,563 adolescents in the US, a decreasing temporal trend in suicidal ideation changed to an increase, with different turning points for female (2009), White (2009), Hispanic (2007), and Black (2005) adolescents. Male and Black youths had nonsignificant changes in suicidal ideation, but the greatest increase in the prevalence of nonfatal suicide attempts. Read

An inexpensive intervention to reduce e-cigarette use among young adults

5/17/21--The results of a double-blind randomized clinical trial examining a text messaging intervention that uses cognitive and behavioral coping skills to promote abstinence of e-cigarette use among 18- to 24-year-olds indicate that when compared to the control, the intervention significantly increased the rate of 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 7 months postrandomization (18.6% vs 24.1%). Read

Effectiveness of vaping cessation text message program among young e-cigarette users

5/17/21--In a randomized clinical trial designed to determine the effectiveness of a text message program for vaping cessation among 2588 young adults vs assessment-only control, postrandomization abstinence rates were 24.1% among participants assigned to the text message intervention and 18.6% among participants assigned to an assessment-only control at 7 months, which is a statistically significant difference. No baseline characteristics moderated the treatment-outcome relationship, including nicotine dependence. Read

Adolescents’ substance use and physical activity before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

5/3/21--In this cohort study of tobacco use behaviors among ninth- and tenth-grade students enrolled at 8 public high schools in Northern California from March 2019 to February 2020 and followed up from September 2019 to September 2020, a reduction in e-cigarette use occurred independently of COVID-19 stay-at-home restrictions, but persistent cannabis and alcohol use suggest continued need for youth substance use prevention and cessation support. Read

Prevalence of medical cannabis use and associated health conditions documented in electronic health records among primary care patients in Washington State

5/6/21--In this cross-sectional study, primary care patients with documented medical cannabis use had a high prevalence of health conditions for which cannabis use has potential benefits, yet a higher prevalence of conditions with potential risks from cannabis use. These findings suggest that practitioners should be prepared to discuss potential risks and benefits of cannabis use with patients. Read

Understanding risk factors for persistent opioid use among youths

4/22/21--Growing evidence indicates that youths exposed to opioids for legitimate medical purposes have an increased risk of opioid use disorders in the future. According to a study, adolescents and young adults are especially susceptible to negative consequences of opioid misuse because of their ongoing biological, social, and psychological development. Read

Trajectories of opioid use following first opioid prescription in opioid-naive youths and young adults

4/22/21--Results of a study examining distinct patterns of opioid prescribing following the first prescription using group-based trajectory modeling and examine the patient-, clinician-, and prescription-level factors that may be associated with trajectory membership during the first year indicate 2 trajectories associated with elevated risk for persistent opioid receipt within 12 months following first opioid prescription. The high-risk trajectory was characterized by older age at time of first prescription, and longer and more potent first prescriptions. Read

Cannabis policy heterogeneity and effects on research – complexity expected

3/18/21--In their study, Matthay et al identify cannabis commercialization as a risk factor associated with population-level adverse health outcomes, including self-injury and violence, among young men. This consideration of the degree of cannabis commercialization extends a critical early call to researchers, most notably that from Pacula et al, to consider heterogeneity in cannabis policy assessments. Read

What parents need to know about teen vaping and what they can do about it

2/22/21--Vaping among teens has recently skyrocketed, and many believe it is a safe activity. About 1 in 5 high school students vape, exposing them to nicotine, a highly addictive substance found in tobacco. It is recommended that parents talk to their child early about vaping and the facts about the harmful chemicals that people breathe in when they vape. Read

Association of cannabis use with self-harm and mortality risk among youths with mood disorders

1/19/21--Study results indicate that cannabis use and cannabis use disorder (CUD) are common among youths and young adults with mood disorders, but the association of CUD with self-harm, suicide, and overall mortality risk is poorly understood in this already vulnerable population. Read

Add-on cannabidiol treatment for drug-resistant seizures in Tuberous Sclerosis complex

12/23/20--In this study, both cannabidiol dosages were equally efficacious in reducing tuberous sclerosis complex–associated seizures compared with placebo, but the smaller dosage led to fewer adverse events. Read

Analysis of US teen driving marijuana, 2017

12/23/20--This study aiming to estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with driving after using marijuana (DAUM) among US teenaged drivers found that almost half (48.8%) of teen drivers who currently use marijuana reported DAUM, which is 17% higher than the rate found in a study of first-year college students in 2012. The study also found that the prevalence of DAUM (12.7%) was more than double the prevalence of drinking and driving (5.0%), perhaps reflecting teens’ perception that DAUM is less dangerous and more acceptable than driving after using alcohol. Read

Solitary use of alcohol and marijuana by US 12th grade students, 1976-2019

12/21/20--This study provides 2018-2019 prevalence estimates of and 1976-2019 trends in solitary alcohol and marijuana use among all 12th grade students and those who used alcohol and marijuana in the past 12 months, separated by sex. Read

Underage youth and young adult e-cigarette use and access before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic

12/3/20--In a national, online, cross-sectional survey study of 2167 youth and young adults using e-cigarettes, 1198 respondents reported changing their amount of e-cigarette use, with 810 reducing or quitting e-cigarette use. During the COVID-19 pandemic, youth e-cigarette users reported changes in e-cigarette use, point-of-purchase, and ability to purchase e-cigarettes without age verification. Read

Incidence and characteristics of nonfatal opioid overdose among youths aged 11 to 24 years by sex

12/17/20-- This cohort study found differences between female and male youths in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and incidence of NFOD. Although female and male youths who experience overdose appear to have different risk factors, many of these risk factors may be amenable to early detection through screening and intervention. Read

Trends in tobacco use among adolescents by grade, sex, and race, 1991 – 2019

12/2/20--In this cross-sectional study of 1,297,362 US adolescents surveyed between 2011 and 2019, past 30-day and daily use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco decreased more rapidly since 2012 as e-cigarette use began to increase. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use reached historically low levels among adolescents in the US. Read

The healthy brain and child development study – Shedding light on opioid exposure, Covid-19, and health disparities

12/9/20--This large longitudinal study, cofunded by the National Institutes of Health Helping to End Addiction Long-term (HEAL) Initiative and several National Institutes of Health institutes, is preparing to deploy a wide range of research tools to study brain development and physical and mental health beginning during pregnancy and following up children until age 10 years. The study design will enable collection of many variables, among them severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection status at the time of pregnancy or thereafter. Read

Driving under the influence of CBD of THC – Is there a difference?

12/1/20--According to a JAMA article, little is known about how people who consume CBD fare behind the wheel. Much of the research into cannabis’s effect on driving performance has focused on the whole plant and its other main cannabinoid, tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, which produces euphoria. Read

Psychedelics in Psychiatry – Keeping the renaissance from going off the rails

12/2/20--This Viewpoint segment offers perspectives on how the psychedelic research renaissance can stay on the path that leads to the integration of these medications into the standard of care rather than recapitulating the ethical and sociopolitical problems that led to the previous period of research going off the rails. Read

Trends in cancer incidence in US adolescents and young adults, 1973-2015

12/1/20--n this cross-sectional, US population-based study, cancer in AYAs was shown to have a unique epidemiological pattern and is a growing health concern, with many cancer subtypes having increased in incidence from 1973 to 2015. Continued research on AYA cancers is important to understanding and addressing the distinct health concerns of this population. Read

Trends in the age of cigarette smoking initiation among young adults in the US from 2002 to 2018

10/6/20--In this repeated cross-sectional study including 71,756 young adults aged 22 to 23 years, the proportion of ever smokers who initiated cigarette smoking in early adulthood more than doubled between 2002 and 2018, and the proportion of daily cigarette smokers who transitioned to daily smoking in early adulthood also increased from 38.7% in 2002 to 55.9% in 2018. Read

Young adults as a tobacco control priority population in the US

10/6/20--This study by Barrington-Trimis et al used data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health to examine the proportion of young adult cigarette smokers (aged 22-23 years) who initiated smoking in young adulthood from 2002 to 2018. Barrington-Trimis and colleagues found that during this period with population-level declines in cigarette smoking among youth and young adults, the average age of smoking initiation and the proportion of new initiates and daily smokers who were young adults increased. Read

Substance use disorder linked to higher COVID-19 risk

10/27/20--People with substance use disorder (SUD), particularly those with opioid use disorder (OUD) and Black individuals, are at an increased risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), according to a recent study coauthored by Nora Volkow, MD, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Read

Rising rates of ED visits for suicidal ideation, suicide attempt

10/27/20--From 2008 to 2017, the rate of emergency department (ED) visits related to suicidal ideation or suicide attempt increased among all age groups 5 years or older, according to a recent report from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Suicide, which ranks among the top 10 US causes of death, is a growing US public health problem, the report noted. The suicide rate in 2017 was 14 per 100 000 population, representing more than 47 000 deaths. Read

US drug use survey uncovers both promising and concerning trends

10/27/20--According to the latest National Survey on Drug Use and Health, compiled by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, among people aged 12 years or older in 2019, 60.1% reported having used a substance during the past month. Yet, the proportion of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who reported consuming alcohol in the past month declined from 17.6% in 2002 to 9.4% in 2019. During that period, past-month cigarette use decreased from 26% to 16.7% among people aged 12 years or older. Read

Youth e-cigarette use drops, more warnings issued

10/20/20--According to the 2020 National Youth Tobacco Survey, conducted by researchers at the FDA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, youth e-cigarette use declined by a third after 2 years of increases. It showed that 19.6% of high school students (3.02 million) reported e-cigarette use, down from 27.5% (4.11 million) in 2019. Among middle school students, 4.7% (550 000) reported e-cigarette use compared with 10.5% (1.24 million) in 2019. Read

Substance use disorder linked to higher COVID-19 risk

10/27/20--People with substance use disorder (SUD), particularly those with opioid use disorder (OUD) and Black individuals, are at an increased risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), according to a recent study coauthored by Nora Volkow, MD, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Volkow and her coauthors conducted a case-control study of deidentified electronic health records for nearly 73.1 million unique patients, including 12 030 with diagnosed COVID-19. Read

US drug use survey uncovers both promising and concerning trends

10/27/20--Among people aged 12 years or older in 2019, 60.1% reported having used a substance during the past month, according to the latest National Survey on Drug Use and Health, compiled by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. The most commonly reported substance used in the past month was alcohol, consumed by 50.8% of survey respondents, followed by tobacco, used by 21.1%. In addition, 13% used an illicit drug. Read

Rising rates of ED visits for suicidal ideation, suicide attempt

10/27/20--From 2008 to 2017, the rate of emergency department (ED) visits related to suicidal ideation or suicide attempt increased among all age groups 5 years or older, according to a recent report from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Overall, males were more likely than females to present to an ED because of suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt, although females aged 10 to 19 years had higher rates of ED visits for suicidal ideation or suicide attempt, with the highest rate of such visits among females aged 15 to 19 years  Read

Trajectories of Nicotine and Cannabis Vaping and Polyuse From Adolescence to Young Adulthood

10/6/20--In this cohort study, the prevalence and type of nicotine vaping and cannabis vaping developmental trajectories from late adolescence to young adulthood were similar. Polysubstance vaping was common from late adolescence to young adulthood, particularly among those reporting more frequent vaping use. The findings suggest that public health policy and clinical interventions should address polysubstance vaping in both adolescence and young adulthood. Read

Assessment of Changes in Alcohol and Marijuana Abstinence, Co-Use, and Use Disorders Among US Young Adults From 2002 to 2018

10/12/20--The findings of this study suggest that US colleges and communities should create and maintain supportive resources for young adults as the substance use landscape changes, specifically as alcohol abstinence, marijuana use, and co-use increase. Interventions for polysubstance use, alcohol use disorder, and marijuana use disorder may provide valuable opportunities for clinicians to screen for prescription drug misuse. Read

CBD drug is approved for a third form of epilepsy

9/15/20--Epidiolex, is the only FDA-approved drug with CBD as an active ingredient, was approved to treat seizures associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) in patients aged 1 year or older. TSC is a genetic disease that causes benign tumors to grow throughout the body. Read

Assessment of menthol and nonmenthol cigarette consumption in the US, 2000 to 2018

8/7/20--According to a study, menthol cigarette market share increased by nearly 10 percentage points from 2000 to 2018. Overall, cigarette consumption declined 46.0% from 2000 (435.6 billion cigarettes) to 2018 (235.3 billion cigarettes), but the decline was greater among nonmenthol cigarettes (52.9%; 322.8 billion to 152.0 billion cigarettes) than for menthol cigarettes (26.1%; 112.8 billion to 83.3 billion cigarettes in 2018). Read

Trends in mortality from drug poisonings, suicide, and alcohol-induced deaths in the United States From 2000 to 2017

9/11/20--This serial cross-sectional study using US mortality data from 2000 to 2017, including 1,446 ,177 drug poisoning, suicide, and alcohol-induced premature deaths found that demographic characteristics and geographic patterns varied by cause of death, suggesting that increasing death rates from these causes were not concentrated in 1 group or region. Specialized interventions tailored for the underlying drivers of each cause of death are urgently needed.. Read

Assessment of menthol and nonmenthol cigarette consumption in the US, 2000 to 2018

8/7/20--This serial cross-sectional study estimates menthol and nonmenthol cigarette consumption from 2000 to 2018 with a previously used approach. Results indicate that the large decline in cigarette consumption in the US over the last 2 decades is overwhelmingly attributed to nonmenthol cigarettes, and this trend is more pronounced since the signing of the TCA. Read

The Current Status of Psychedelics in Psychiatry

7/29/20--Until very recently, no companies would manufacture medical-grade psychedelics, which made getting regulatory approval for clinical research—especially clinical trials—very difficult and in some countries (eg, Germany) impossible. Read

Content Analysis of Instagram Posts From 2019 With Cartoon-Based Marketing of e-Cigarette–Associated Products

7/20/20--Studies have indicated that cartoons are an effective strategy in increasing product recognition and susceptibility to use e-cigarettes. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration announced it is prioritizing enforcement against e-cigarette companies that use marketing likely to promote youth use. This study aimed to determine if companies were using cartoon-based strategies to market and promote e-cigarette–associated products in 2019 on Instagram. Read

Effect of inhaled cannabis for pain in adults with sickle cell disease a randomized clinical trial

7/17/20-- This randomized clinical trial found that, compared with vaporized placebo, vaporized cannabis did not statistically significantly reduce pain and associated symptoms, except interference in mood, in patients with SCD with chronic pain. Read

Association of state policies allowing medical cannabis for opioid use disorder with dispensary marketing for this indication

7/14/20--According to this study, state-level policies designating opioid use disorder (OUD) as a qualifying condition for medical cannabis were associated with more dispensaries claiming cannabis can treat OUD. Future studies linking dispensary advertisements to health outcomes in people with OUD (eg, use of MOUDs, overdose mortality) are warranted, as are investigations into advertising that addresses other conditions with major morbidity and mortality consequences. Read

Reducing Impaired Driving Fatalities: Data Need to Drive Testing, Enforcement, and Policy

6/22/20--The 2 studies evaluating the association of recreational cannabis laws with motor vehicle crash deaths by Santaella-Tenorio et al and Kamer et al in this issue of JAMA Internal Medicine contribute to an emerging body of research necessary to inform policy on cannabis and impaired driving. Both studies use natural experiments in policy implementation to provide a high-level perspective of how legalization of recreational cannabis use may affect motor vehicle crash deaths in the population. Read

Association of Recreational Cannabis Laws in Colorado and Washington State With Changes in Traffic Fatalities, 2005-2017

6/22/20--Using a synthetic control approach, this ecological study found that recreational cannabis laws were associated with increases in traffic fatalities in Colorado (mean of 75 excess fatalities per year) but not in Washington State. These findings suggest that unintended effects of recreational cannabis laws can be heterogeneous and may be specific to variations in how these laws are implemented (eg, density of recreational cannabis stores). Read

Changes in traffic fatality rates in the first 4 states to legalize recreational marijuana

6/22/20--Researchers have not yet conclusively determined if a state’s legalizing recreational marijuana is associated with traffic fatality rates. Two early studies reported no significant change in roadway deaths following legalization in Colorado and Washington, whereas a study including Oregon reported a temporary increase. A more recent study, including 2017 data, found a statistically significant increase in fatal crashes only after commercial stores opened, suggesting that the effect of legalization may take more time to observe. Read

Assessment of Incorporation of Lessons from Tobacco Control in City and County Laws Regulating Legal Marijuana in California

6/19/20--The aim of this cross-sectional study is to assess the extent to which potential best practices, including those from tobacco control, were incorporated into state and local marijuana policies in California. Results indicate that all 539 California cities and counties found that jurisdictions differed widely in how they regulated marijuana and that key public health recommendations and lessons from tobacco control have generally not been adopted, although local innovation is emerging. Read

Association of electronic nicotine delivery system use with cigarette smoking relapse among former smokers in the United States

6/5/20--In this study, risk of cigarette smoking relapse among former cigarette smokers was higher among those who used electronic nicotine delivery systems or other tobacco products compared with those who did not. Furthermore, for clinicians treating former smokers who have successfully quit all nicotine products, the implications are that use of ENDS products should be discouraged, just as use of all other tobacco products is discouraged. Read

Association of socioeconomic position with e-cigarette use among individuals who quit smoking in England, 2014 to 2019

6/5/20--In this study, lower socioeconomic position was associated with higher rates of e-cigarette use among those who quit smoking after e-cigarettes became widely available, likely reflecting continued use of e-cigarettes as a long-term cessation aid among individuals with lower socioeconomic positions. Read

Associations of flavored e-cigarette uptake with subsequent smoking initiation and cessation

6/5/20--In this cohort study with 17, 929 participants, multivariable analyses of nationally representative, longitudinal survey data evaluated differences in smoking initiation and cessation subsequent to vaping uptake among those who used flavored vs unflavored e-cigarettes, separately by age group. Results indicate that adults who began vaping nontobacco-flavored e-cigarettes were more likely to quit smoking than those who vaped tobacco flavors. More research is needed to establish the relationship between e-cigarette flavors and smoking and to guide related policy. Read